Sunday, April 25, 2010

THE GREAT TSUNAMI OF AUGUST 26, 1883 FROM THE EXPLOSION OF THE KRAKATAU VOLCANO (Krakatoa) IN INDONESIA

. Sunday, April 25, 2010
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The paroxysmal explosion and collapse of the volcano of Krakatoa generated formidable tsunami waves that were up to 37 m (120 feet) in height. These waves destroyed 295 towns and villages in the Sunda Strait in Western Java and Southern Sumatra. A total of 36,417 people were drowned. The tsunami, being of volcanic origin (a point source) was only destructive locally in Indonesia. However, small tsunami waves were recorded throughout the Pacific.

Tsunami Waves Generated by the Explosion of the Krakatau (Krakatoa) Volcano


Undoubtedly, the atmospheric pressure waves from the three gigantic eruptions of Krakatoa on August 26 and 27, 1883, which proceeded the fourth paroxysmal explosion, gave rise to tsunami like waves. The first of these three proceeding violent explosions occurred at 17: 07 Greenwich time (GMT) on August 26, 1883. The second and third violent eruptions occurred at 05:30 GMT and at 06:44 GMT on August 27, 1883. Being of atmospheric origin and small in size, none of these earlier tsunami like waves were noticed or reported. At the time, the only operating tide gauge in Batavia (Jakarta) was too far away to record these smaller sea level oscillations.


It was the fourth paroxysmal explosion of Krakatoa at 10:02 (GMT) that gave rise to the gigantic destructive tsunami waves in the Sunda Strait. This paroxysmal explosion blew away the northern two-thirds of the island and it was almost instantaneously followed by the collapse of the unsupported volcanic chambers which formed the huge underwater caldera. It was the combined effects of the explosion and collapse of the volcano that generated the catastrophic tsunami waves that caused havoc and destruction in the Sunda Strait.

The Sunda Strait between the islands of Sumatra and Java.


The huge tsunami waves destroyed all the coastal towns and villages on the Sunda Strait, within an hour or two after the explosion and collapse of the volcano . The waves were so powerful that coral blocks weighing as much as 600 tons were thrown ashore. A warship in the area was carried 3 km. inland by the waves and was deposited at a 10 meter elevation above sea level. The huge tsunami was well documented in terms of visual observations of heights reached along the coasts of Java and Sumatra as well from a recording at a tide gauge at Batavia (now Jakarta).


Many of the names of the towns and villages of this region given here were taken from older accounts. These names have changed since the departure of the Dutch from Indonesia. For example Batavia, has been replaced by Jakarta. The following is a short description of tsunami heights and travel times at the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.

Map showing the remnant of Rakata Island (now called Krakatau Island) after the 1983 explosion and collapse and the new volcano of Anak Krakatau that subsequently emerged in 1927 from Krakatau's sunken caldera (Modified after Simkin and Fiske, 1983)


Island of Sumatra (Telok Batong, Vlakke Hook)


The tsunami travel time to the closest villages of Sumatra was about 1 hour after the explosion of Krakatoa. At Telok Batong, tsunami waves up to 22 meters
(72 feet) completely submerged the village. At Vlakke Hook the maximum tsunami wave height was 15 meters.

Island of Java {Sirik, Anjer, Tyringen, Merak, Batavia (Jakarta) and Surabaya}


Also, tsunami waves reached the Western coast of Java within an hour after the explosion of Krakatoa. The village of Sirik was almost entirely swept away by these waves. It took also about one hour for the destructive tsunami waves to reach Anjer where a 10 meter wave completely overwhelmed the lower part of town. At Tyringen, waves ranged from 15 - 20 meters in height, while at Merak, the waves reached a maximum of 35 meters.


It took approximately 2.5 hours for the tsunami waves to refract around the western end of the island of Java and to reach Batavia (Jakarta), the capital of Indonesia on. Waves of 2.4 meters, were reported there with a very long period period of 122 minutes. By the time the tsunami reached Surabaya, at the eastern part of Java, the reported wave was only 0.2 meters. The tsunami travel time to Surabaya was 11.9 hours.



Krakatau's Tsunami Waves Recorded at Distant Places


Small sea level oscillations from Krakatoa's explosion were recorded by tide gauges as far away as Hawaii, the American West Coast, South America, and even as far away as the English Channel, in France and England. It took 12 hours for the tsunami from Krakatoa's explosion to reach Aden on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, some 3800 nautical miles away. The wave reported at Aden probably represents the one generated in the Sunda Strait. The travel time of a little over 300 nautical miles per hour to Aden appears reasonable. There were no land boundaries on the Indian Ocean side of Krakatoa to prevent the tsunami energy from spreading in that direction. However, it is doubtful that the waves which were reported at distant locations in the Pacific or in the Atlantic Ocean represented the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. Very little, if any at all, of this energy could have escaped the surrounding inland seas to the east of the Sunda Strait. Most probably, the small waves that were observed in the Pacific as well as in the Atlantic, were generated by the atmospheric pressure waves which resulted from the major Krakatoa explosion, and not from the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait.

Photo of the volcano of Krakatau taken in 1883 before the major eruption


JAPAN: In Japan a small sea level oscillation was recorded at Honshu-Sagami and at Shikoku-Satsuma.
AUSTRALIA: In Australia, a trace of the tsunami was recorded. It was less than 0.1 meter.
In New Zealand a 0.3 meter change in water level was reported.
HAWAII: A small oscillation of only 0.24 meters was recorded by the Honolulu tide gauge on the island of Oahu, 17 hours after the explosion of Krakatoa.
ALASKA: In Alaska's Kodiak Island a small oscillation of 0.1 meter was recorded .
CALIFORNIA: In San Fransciso, California, a 0.1 meter sea level oscillation was recorded 20 hours after the explosion.

Anak Krakatau (Son of Krakatoa) at the present time.

Krakatau's Volcanic Tsunami Source Mechanism


Paroxysmal volcanic explosions, such as the August 26, 1883 of Krakatoa are referred to as "hydromagmatic" or "phreatomagmatic" . According to this mechanism of generation, following the earlier eruptions, cold seawater entered the magmatic chambers of Krakatoa when its walls begun to rupture in its weakened base. Super heated steam built tremendous pressure which, in turn, resulted in the large explosion of the volcano. Following the explosion, the unsupported remainder of Krakatoa collapsed into the empty magmatic cavities underneath, creating a large depression, or submerged caldera in the sea (see diagram).
Into this newly formed cavity rushed several cubic miles of seawater, filling it rapidly and creating waves that, near the center, probably reached heights of several hundred feet.



Then, just as quickly as the water had rushed into this newly formed caldera, huge tsunami waves rushed out like a gigantic bore. These waves radiated out in all directions across the Sunda Strait. The speed of the waves was limited by the relatively shallow depth of the sea in the area. Thus, it took almost an hour after the explosion for the destructive waves to reach Java and Sumatra. These waves destroyed most of the coastal settlements in the Sunda Strait Undoubtedly, submarine landslides and the atmospheric shock waves from the explosion generated additional tsunami waves in the area.

Graphics of Krakatau before and after the paroxysmal explosion and caldera collapse

FOR DETAILLED ACCOUNT OF EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ERUPTION SEE ALSO: NEAR AND FAR-FIELD EFFECTS OF TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY THE PAROXYSMAL ERUPTIONS, EXPLOSIONS, CALDERA COLLAPSES AND MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF THE KRAKATAU VOLCANO IN INDONESIA ON AUGUST 26-27, 1883

resource ref wikipedia

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Elephant School - the Way Kambas National Park - Lampung

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ELEPHANT TRAINING CENTER


Way Kambas is located in East Lampung District, Way Kambas National Park is a large national park covering 1,300 square kilometres in Lampung province, south Sumatra, Indonesia. In the east part of Central Lampung there is a nature reserve named “Way Kambas“ which covers 130.000 hectares areas. To achieve Way Kambas, an asphalted road is built. It takes 2 hours drive from Bandar Lampung. In nature reserve, there is the first elephant-training centre in Indonesia to train wild elephants which are capture from outside the area because they have disturbed the people's fields.

It is estimated there are about 500 elephants in Lampung, 250 of them are in Way Kambas. In this nature reserve, we can also find other wild animal such as Sumateran tigers, bears, tapirs and other animals such as deer, wild pigs and 286 bird species. If we visit Way kambas, we can see the process of training wild elephants in the elephants training centre, an attraction of elephants are playing football, elephant safari, elephants are swimming and on certain occasions, we can also join catching the wild elephants and watch the elephants which are in the sexual mood which is very rarely found in the world.



According to Zoography, Way Kambas area included in oriental region. It is different than islands eastside of the Wallace line, either Sumatra or Way Kambas does not have endemic species treasures. There is just 15 species of endemic mammals and 20 species of bird. The existing animals in Way Kambas such as Sumateran Elephant, Sumateran rhino, Sumateran tiger, tapir, chevrotain, long tail apes, monkeys and several kind of bird like heron, parrot, and some else.
Way Kambas National Park is the area of raining forest that has 126.000 ha areas. And geographically is located between 4° 37 LS - 5° 16 LU and 105°54 BT, and the highest by 0 - 60 m dpl and the average of raindrops is about 2000 mm/year.


RESORT WAY KANAN


Way Kanan is included in the Way Kambas National Park area with the location 13 Km from the gate (plang Ijo). Along the way visitors are fortunate to be able to see the wildlife that roam or travel on the road.
Right Way is a paradise for lovers of nature because of its flora and fauna.



SUAKA RHINO SUMATERA

Still in Way Kanan Resort area, there are SRS (Sumateran Rhino Sanctuary). This location is the Project Development Research Sumatran rhino population in its habitat as well as the Sumatran tiger population research. Activities that can be done is in the jungle Jungle Tracking or motor boating or river downstream to upstream area to observe the flora and fauna with guided officers.


Readmore here


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Thursday, April 8, 2010

Playing with Dolphin at Teluk Kiluan - Lampung, Indonesia

. Thursday, April 8, 2010
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Lampung Province area has 35.376,5 Km land which conceives 69 island, and located at 103′40′ BT tilll 105′50′ BT and 03′45′ LS till 06′45′ LS with coastline length ± 1.105 Km ( include some islands) divided become 4 territorial waters region, for example territorial waters Pantai Barat (± 210 Km), Teluk Semaka (± 200 Km), Teluk Lampung and Selat Sunda (± 160 Km), and Pantai Timur (± 270 Km).

Teluk Kiluan, which is located in Semangka Bay and most of the area is part of Tanggamus District, has a long coastal seaboard and hills. For several people, the bay has been such a well-known destination for the dolphins, which are so abundant in this area, and the fishing area (Fishing Week I 2006 and Fishing Week II 2007), which potentially to be developed as fishing tourism. More over, there is a marine turtle sanctuary (DKP Lampung 2007) where as the spawning ground of some rare turtle such as, “penyu sisik”……

Besides its natural diversity, Teluk Kiluan also has cultural diversity which consists of some ethnics such as, Sundanesse, Balinesse, Bugist and the native Lampungnesse,so that it makes a various languages, cultures and religions. Most of the population are immigrants, and only a small number indigenous people who has been living there with their offspring from long time ago. Anyway, they live together side by side with peace and harmony

Teluk Kiluan has a capital residency (Pekon Kiluan Negri) which has areas of lining coastal seaboard and hills. One of them is Dusun Bandung Jaya. This residence is stretching along the shore bay over an island (Pulau Kelapa/Pulau Kiluan) up to Kiluan Negri,
Kelumbayan District, Tanggamus, Lampung. This area can be visited through the sea within 3 hours journey from the center of fish trading (PPI) Lempasing. We can also reach this area on ground by car ( but can only reach Pekon Kiluan Negri) within 1,5-2 hours journey from Bandar Lampung. Through the ground trip we can have beautiful scenery of hills and curves as well as the challenging off road way which requires a well-conditioned stamina and driving skill. Even though it has steeply roads (Along Padang Cermin Border), we will be spoiled with beautiful surroundings of the coastal scenery as well as the green hills.

The population of Dusun Bandung Jaya are heterogonous, it is strikingly clear when we arrive to this place. The people who live in this village of dusun Bandung Jaya are Javanesse, Banten, Balinesse, Sundanesse, Bugist, and the indigenous Lampungnesse. Their main living is fishing that they totally depend on the abundant marine resources in the sea. The fishermen of the village only use small canoes and traditional fishing equipments and fishing nets “Rawai”. Their marine captures are usually fish like grey fish (cob), tuna, tengiri, lemadang/sangrenai, and marlin/setuhuk (seasonal capture), with those captures they can afford their daily needs.


Beside as fishermen, they also cultivate their surrounding soil. They usually grow cacao and peppercorn plants, paddy (wet and dry land), vegetables (beans). On the other area they also grow yearly produces such as, coconut, petai, and mangoes. In general, they still don’t handle it intensively because of natural factors (rain-dependent paddy field).

Unlike cacao and peppercorn, they already have skill on planting techniques. But the way they handle the harvest produces is still “reckless” for the limited handling technique skill .


Bio-geographic Conditions

Besides as an ecotourism destination, the existence of dolphins and potential fishing spot, geographically, Teluk Kiluan also has shoreline and natural scenery of beautiful hills. The land is a hilly ground and so challenging for out door and tracking activities. Meanwhile, biologically, the land of Dusun Bandung Jaya, which has a lot of produces plants, is a habitat for insects, such as ants, butterfly and various fungus.

The coastal region, which has stone and sand composition, mangrove forest (bakau), and coastal forest (Littoral Forest), provides beauty on its own. There are more than 4 kinds vegetation that build the mangrove forest around Dusun Bandung Jaya, such as mangrove (Rhizophora Sp), api-api (Avicenia Sp), Nipah (Nypa Fruticans), Drujon/deruju (Acanthus Ilicifolious). In average, the mangrove forest around Dusun Bandung Jaya is well-preserved and coexisting with local people. Besides mangrove forest, Dusun Bandung Jaya also has the composition of coastal forest which grow on stony and sandy substract. There are more than three kinds of plants that grow around the coastline of Dusun Bandung Jaya, they are Waru Laut (Hibiscus Sp), Ketapang (Terminalia Sp), Beringin Laut (Ficus sp).

There are many kind of potency, no wonder if Kiluan Bay became the object tourism base on the ecology (ecotourism). And if it is well managed, it would be possible for kiluan to be the potential location of domestic and foreign countries, later the economics of local society will increase. The existence of this area will influence the education matter. The awarness of education and skill could life beautifully. It needs a good cooperation between the society and stakeholder to work together in supporting Visit Indonesia year 2010, hopefully……..


learn to the Kiluan Bay’s Dolphins

It can be a few of people knew if The Kiluan Bay had the great of marine lifes. Especially, the Dolphins life. If you get a tour through to the Kiluan Bay marine, close with Hindia Ocean and Sunda Strait, you can get a fascinating experient. Meet some acrobatics dolphin surrounding it. There are the Dolphin community.

We can find them if we use a traditional boat whose Kiluan Bay community had. It call as “jukung”. This boat have a unique shape that had a purpose, for adaptation with its marines characters whose had big waves and deep water. Beside that, only use a jukung to get the Dolphins life because they got to be frightened when some hunter killed them with a big boat. Why did it happen?…according to some communities interviews, a meat of Dolphins was a great “meal” to catch some sharks what can be found surrounding in Kiluan Bay area (the Shark Island area).


Known two main species of Dolphins what can be identified. There were Bottle-nose dolphin (Turciops truncatus), the bigger than the others. They had dark-grey to black color of morphology, with grey strip color on pectoral to abdominal body. Then, they had some unique habits such as calm, gently style when they had to swim, and friendly.

Another species was knows as Long-nose dolphin (Stenella longirostris), whose had dark-brown to brown color and smaller than the other species. But, it had an opposite habits with Bottle-nose dolphin too. This species love an acrobatic moving, lively, and skillful to swim. Sometimes, when we found this species, they always show their fascinating acrobatic. So, we always called them as “the great acrobaters”.

The Dolphin life lived as well as the Kiluan Bay’s communities. They help each others. When Kiluan’s fisherman want to get some pelagics fishes, the Dolphins be a guide. So, they lived together in a harmony till now…

see more photos here or see here


Map Location :




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